《海上扁舟》中的自然主义

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    摘要自然主义是美国文学史上最重要的文学思潮之一。根据自然主义理论,人的行为是由悲观主义、环境和遗传决定的。作为伟大的美国作家,斯蒂芬•克莱恩享有很高的国际声誉。《海上扁舟》是斯蒂芬•克莱恩的代表作之一,该作品充分的体现了美国自然主义的文学特征。本文从自然主义基本特征的几个方面对作品进行分析,从而对《海上扁舟》这篇作品更好的理解。18866
    毕业论文关键词: 克莱恩;《海上扁舟》; 自然主义
    Abstract Naturalism is one of the most literary thoughts in American literature. According to naturalistic theory, human beings are controlled by pessimism, environment and heredity. As a great American writer, Stephen Crane has established high international reputation. The Open Boat is one of his masterpieces. The work fully reflects the characteristics of American Naturalism. This paper analyzes The Open Boat explicitly from the perspective of naturalism. Therefore, we will have a good understanding of the work.
    Key words: Crane; The Open Boat; Naturalism;  Naturalism in The Open Boat
    Contents
    摘 要    i
    Abstract    ii
    I. Introduction    1
    II. Background Information    2
    2.1 The Author and His Works    2
    2.2 An Introduction to the novel    3
    III. A General View of Naturalism and American Naturalism    4
    3.1 Definition of Naturalism    4
    3.2 The Characteristics of Naturalism    5
    3.3 Naturalism in American Literature    6
    IV. Naturalism in The Open Boat    7
    4.1 The Controlling Power of Pessimism    8
    4.2 The Controlling Power of Heredity    9
    4.3 The Controlling Power of Environment    10
    4.4 Significance of The Open Boat    12
    V. Conclusion    13
    Bibliography    14
    Acknowledgements    15
    I. Introduction
        The Open Boat describes an actual incident from Stephen Crane’s life. It was published in 1897. When he traveled to Cuba and wanted to work as a newspaper reporter during the Cuban insurrection against Spain, unfortunately, Crane’s ship sank off the coast of Florida, and therefore, he was stranded at sea for many hours. Crane and three other men had to sail through the sea in a small boat. The story tells of the travails of four men shipwrecked at sea who must make their way to shore in a dinghy. They do work hard to ensure their own survival, but it is almost a random survival. Chance plays a large role in the boat. Crane’s grippingly realistic depiction of their life-threatening ordeal captures the sensations and emotions of struggle for survival against the forces of nature. It is often classified as a work of Naturalism, a literary offshoot of the Realist movement.
        The naturalistic movement in literature is a shift from writing about people in a realistic manner to writing about people from the perspective of naturalism. The naturalistic writers think that all the human thoughts, ideas and actions are predetermined by pessimism, heredity and environment. Naturalistic writers study human beings as creatures of instinct, and write novels that illustrate man’s inherently animalistic nature.
        This paper consists of five chapters. The first part is a brief introduction about this paper. The second part shows the background information of the author and his works, and also the introduction to The Open Boat. The third part is to present the theory of naturalism. The fourth part analyzes the naturalism in The Open Boat from the aspects of pessimism, heredity and environment. The last part is conclusion. We can not only appreciate the naturalism from The Open Boat, but also understand deeply of the literary theory of naturalism.
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