毕业论文关键词： 克莱恩；《海上扁舟》； 自然主义
Abstract Naturalism is one of the most literary thoughts in American literature. According to naturalistic theory, human beings are controlled by pessimism, environment and heredity. As a great American writer, Stephen Crane has established high international reputation. The Open Boat is one of his masterpieces. The work fully reflects the characteristics of American Naturalism. This paper analyzes The Open Boat explicitly from the perspective of naturalism. Therefore, we will have a good understanding of the work.
Key words: Crane; The Open Boat; Naturalism; Naturalism in The Open Boat
摘 要 i
I. Introduction 1
II. Background Information 2
2.1 The Author and His Works 2
2.2 An Introduction to the novel 3
III. A General View of Naturalism and American Naturalism 4
3.1 Definition of Naturalism 4
3.2 The Characteristics of Naturalism 5
3.3 Naturalism in American Literature 6
IV. Naturalism in The Open Boat 7
4.1 The Controlling Power of Pessimism 8
4.2 The Controlling Power of Heredity 9
4.3 The Controlling Power of Environment 10
4.4 Significance of The Open Boat 12
V. Conclusion 13
The Open Boat describes an actual incident from Stephen Crane’s life. It was published in 1897. When he traveled to Cuba and wanted to work as a newspaper reporter during the Cuban insurrection against Spain, unfortunately, Crane’s ship sank off the coast of Florida, and therefore, he was stranded at sea for many hours. Crane and three other men had to sail through the sea in a small boat. The story tells of the travails of four men shipwrecked at sea who must make their way to shore in a dinghy. They do work hard to ensure their own survival, but it is almost a random survival. Chance plays a large role in the boat. Crane’s grippingly realistic depiction of their life-threatening ordeal captures the sensations and emotions of struggle for survival against the forces of nature. It is often classified as a work of Naturalism, a literary offshoot of the Realist movement.
The naturalistic movement in literature is a shift from writing about people in a realistic manner to writing about people from the perspective of naturalism. The naturalistic writers think that all the human thoughts, ideas and actions are predetermined by pessimism, heredity and environment. Naturalistic writers study human beings as creatures of instinct, and write novels that illustrate man’s inherently animalistic nature.
This paper consists of five chapters. The first part is a brief introduction about this paper. The second part shows the background information of the author and his works, and also the introduction to The Open Boat. The third part is to present the theory of naturalism. The fourth part analyzes the naturalism in The Open Boat from the aspects of pessimism, heredity and environment. The last part is conclusion. We can not only appreciate the naturalism from The Open Boat, but also understand deeply of the literary theory of naturalism.